Nutritional constraints including not only caloric restriction or protein deficiency, but also energy-dense diets affect metabolic health and frequently lead to obesity and insulin resistance, as well as glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. The effects of these environmental factors are often mediated via epigenetic modifiers that target the expression of metabolic genes. More recently, it was discovered that such parentally acquired metabolic changes can alter the metabolic health of the filial and grand-filial generations. In mammals, this epigenetic inheritance can either follow an intergenerational or transgenerational mode of inheritance. In the case of intergenerational inheritance, epimutations established in gametes persist through the first round of epigenetic reprogramming occurring during preimplantation development. For transgenerational inheritance, epimutations persist additionally throughout the reprogramming that occurs during germ cell development later in embryogenesis. Differentially expressed transcripts, genomic cytosine methylations, and several chemical modifications of histones are prime candidates for tangible marks which may serve as epimutations in inter- and transgenerational inheritance and which are currently being investigated experimentally. We review, here, the current literature in support of epigenetic inheritance of metabolic traits caused by nutritional constraints and potential mechanisms in man and in rodent model systems.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. There is increasing evidence to suggest that EDC exposure during early life, in particular during fetal development, contributes to a variety of diseases, including cancers, which manifest later in life or even in the next generation. Age Dordr 36 6 It is a precursor for the production of many different plastics used extensively, for example, to line water pipes and in diverse household products. Surg Obes Relat Dis 11 4 — Cancer Biol. Thus, Tremblay and collaborators investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation in overweight and obese subjects on epigenetic modifications [ 16 ]. Ning B. Garlic and its potential for prevention of colorectal cancer and other conditions. RNAi has also been demonstrated to be involved in silencing genes associated with HIV-1, along with several types of cancers [ 37 — 41 ].
A number of bioactive dietary components are of particular interest in the field of epigenetics. Many of these compounds display anticancer properties and may play a role in cancer prevention. Numerous studies suggest that a number of nutritional compounds have epigenetic targets in cancer cells. Importantly, emerging evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary agents can alter normal epigenetic states as well as reverse abnormal gene activation or silencing. Epigenetic modifications induced by bioactive dietary compounds are thought to be beneficial. This article will primarily focus on dietary factors that have been demonstrated to influence the epigenome and that may be used in conjunction with other cancer prevention and chemotherapeutic therapies. Dietary factors have become agents of strong interest in the field of epigenetics. A number of bioactive dietary components that appear to have potential to prevent disease and promote overall health have been identified [ 1 — 4 ].
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